HUNTING ACCURACY AND BULLET PERFORMANCE

August 27, 2013 in African Safaris, Gunroom, hunter, Hunting Ethics, Hunting Help, Hunting trophies by Hunting Legends

Hunting Legends

This a long article, however, we believe an informative one and you should enjoy this if you are hunting fanatics like we are. Most seasoned hunters and gun fanatics may find this article as old news, however, if you are a hunter who packs out the rifles once a year, and want to improve your general knowledge, then you will find this article interesting and informative.

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EFFECTS OF DESIGN ON BULLET PERFORMANCE (Extracts from Cleve Cheney’s original article on the same topic)

This article is commissioned for JOE ‘the ordinary guy’ (Yes not JOE THE PLUMBER – Joe ordinary).The purpose of this article is to give Joe ordinary guy some useful information, so that he doesn’t have to put up with the sniggers from the gunship seat warmers when he walks in and asks for a pack of 120 grain round nose soft-point bullets in ,243 calibre for his annual deer (or springbuck) hunt, only to be told that there is no bullet of that weight in ,243 calibre; even if there were, it would not not be the right bullet for shooting at long range on the plains. OK, I’ll take whatever you’ve got – “a bullet is a bullet, isn’t it?” (more sniggers).

Next time, armed with the bit of know how from this article, you will be better informed and need not fear any derisive looks or “knowing glances” as you walk into the gunship and order the right ammo for the right job. So, the experts can skip this article and read something else on their level, and Joe, you can get yourself that cup of coffee and enjoy the reading.

As professional hunters in Africa we often end up in culling/harvesting/cropping operations. It’s a job that needs to be done, and one which we like to do as humanely and quickly as possible, keep wounding down to an absolute minimum. As written by Cleve, we also very quickly in this process and operations, came to learn that two bullets of exactly the same calibre and mass (weight) can in fact perform very differently. We do a lot of culling in Namibia, of mostly springbuck and gemsbuck, and we were soon forced to learn more about ballistics and what accuracy and efficiency is all about.

Thanks to authors such as Cleve Cheney, we can all sigh a sigh of relief and get back into those gun shops, talk the talk and get the right stuff for the right job. In order to do that, we need to learn a bit of the technical jargon used in the expert circles.

Firstly, a bullet is not a cartridge and a cartridge is not a bullet. Huh? OK, let’s put an end to the confusion. A bullet is the projectile that flies out of the end of the barrel (muzzle) when a shot goes off. A cartridge consists of four basic components: the bullet (the part we have just spoken of), the case (usually made of brass), propellant or powder (no it’s not “gunpowder”), which burns (no it does not “explode”) to produce the gas, which forces the bullet down the bore, and a primer (which does explode), used to ignite the propellant. Cool, now that we know what we are talking about let’s carry on.

When a bullet leaves the muzzle of a firearm two things happen. It starts dropping (due to the effects of gravity) and it starts slowing down (due to the effects of air resistance and because the thrust supplied by the gas of the burning propellant in the barrel of the firearm dissipates once the bullet leaves the muzzle).

The way in which the bullet now travels towards the intended target (exterior ballistic performance) and the way it reacts when it hits the target (terminal ballistic performance) are determined to a significant degree by the design features engineered into the bullet shape, material and construction. We will now examine two of these design parameters – ballistic coefficient and sectional density. Now, don’t stop reading! This is not just about some useless, intellectual good-for-nothing know-how; it has some very practical application when you grasp the concepts.

BALLISTIC COEFFICIENT (BC)

Let’s start with ballistic coefficient. Ballistic coefficient (BC) is basically a measure of how streamlined a bullet is, which determines how well (or poorly) it flies through the air. Air acts like water and the way it flows around a bullet determines how easily the bullet flies through the air. The airflow can be smooth or turbulent. Turbulence is caused by airflow separation and the creation of vortices. Airflow turbulence causes a phenomenon called “drag”, which works in the opposite direction to the bullet’s line of motion and tends to hold the bullet back. It’s like something holding onto your shirt while you are attempting to run away from them. Bullets are thus designed for different purposes and have different shapes.

The shape or profile, therefore, determines a bullet’s aerodynamic efficiency. The more dynamic the shape of the bullet, the lower the drag factor. A lower drag factor translates into a flatter trajectory. The larger the ballistic coefficient, the more efficient the bullet’s performance in the air. The ballistic coefficient increases as one moves from the flat nose to round nose to spire point to boat-tailed spitzers.

Now you might well ask: If bullets with a higher ballistic coefficient have flatter trajectories, why are all bullets not designed this way? Good question; we will answer it a little later on.

For the technically inclined the mathematical formula for a bullet’s ballistic coefficient can be expressed as the ratio of its sectional density to its coefficient of form, where sectional density is the weight (mass) of the bullet divided by the square of its diameter. It can be written as follows: Sectional density (SD) = Sectional density (SD) / (divided by) Coefficient of form (i) = Weight of the bullet (in pounds) / (divided by) Diameter of bullet (inches squared (2)).

Coefficient of form, or form factor, is a mathematical number that relates to a bullet’s shape, smoothness and shape at the base. The form factor compares the shape of a bullet being tested to the shape of a standard bullet used in a particular ballistic table. Ouch. This is getting a bit complicated. Don’t panic there is good news.

Near the turn of the last century, many tests were done by the Krupp Company in Germany to determine the bullet drop characteristics of so-called standard bullets. Soon after the Krupp data had been published a Russian colonel named Mayevski constructed a mathematical model for the drag deceleration of a standard bullet. The standard bullet was one inch in diameter, weighed one pound and had a ogive head of 8 calibres radius. Colonel James M Ingalss of the US army later used the Mayevski’s mathematical model to compute his now famous ballistics table.

The standard Krupp bullet proved to be such a good model for use in calculating ballistics of most bullets used in sporting firearms, that today most of the major bullet companies use the Ingalls or similar tables together with test firings of production bullets to compute ballistics’s coefficients for their bullets. These coefficients are published in most of the major reloading manuals. Some ammunition manufacturers publish the ballistic coefficient of their bullets, most instead include ballistic charts in their sales literature and catalogues that show drop and remaining down range velocity for bullets used in each cartridge that they manufacture. So, you don’t have to do the maths.

Now, back to the question you asked earlier on. If bullets with a higher ballistics’ coefficient have flatter trajectories why are all bullets not designed this way?

The answer is that bullets are designed for different applications. Bullets with a high BC work well when shooting animals at long ranges. The trajectory remains reasonably flat and by the time the bullet arrives at the intended target it will still be in the kill zone. When trajectory becomes pronounced, accuracy (at long range) becomes more difficult. Bullets of identical weight, calibre and sectional density (see later) will have decidedly different trajectories. Bench rest shooters who shoot at long range generally prefer flat shooting boat-tail spitzers as opposed to round-nose bullets for example. Hunters shooting on open plains, where it is difficult to get closer than 300 yards from their quarry, would also go for spitzers, spire points or boat-tailed bullets. But bullets with a high BC do have a disadvantage and that is in their “brush busting” capabilities. They are easily deflected by vegetation and this is where round-nose bullets come into their own. So, if you are hunting in areas of dense bush where you will be shooting at much closer distances (in many cases under 100 yards) where range and bullet drop are not as critical and you might have have to shoot through vegetation, then a round-nose bullet would be a better option. Some firearms, such as those with tube magazines, also require the use of round-nose bullets.

Handgun bullets use mostly round-nosed, flat-point, hollow-point, semi wadcutter or wadcutter configurations, again because their application is mostly close range.

The BC is however, not based on the nose shape alone. It is based on nose shape plus sectional density. The reason is that a short bullet with a sharp nose will drop faster than long bullet with the same nose. The BC therefore describes the performance of a bullet as a whole. The higher the BC, the flatter a given bullet will shoot.

SECTIONAL DENSITY

Sectional density is the ratio of a bullet’s weight (mass) to its core diameter expressed as a number. For a given calibre the lighter (and shorter) the bullet, the lower the SD, the heavier (and longer) the bullet, the higher it’s SD. The SD gives a basic idea of a given bullet’s performance characteristics, because a long bullet retains velocity, while a shorter bullet sheds velocity.

Because sectional density relates strictly to weight, not shape, it means that the most blunt-nosed bullet has the exact same SD as the most streamline bullet of that same weight and calibre.

SD is important because it has a significant effect on penetration. All other variables being equal (like impact velocity, bullet design and material, etc) the higher the SD number, the better the bullet’s penetration. In other words, a small diameter bullet of a given weight tends to penetrate better than a large diameter bullet of the same weight, because it concentrates the same force on a smaller area of the target. Penetration is important because the bullet must get well inside an animal to disrupt the functioning of it’s vital organs.

Bullets for medium sized game should have sectional densities ranging from .216 to .250 with a mean of about .237. For big game, bullets with higher sectional densities should be should be selected in a range from .271. to .287 with a mean of about .279.

So, let’s wrap this up and summarize the effects that ballistic coefficient and sectional density could have on bullet performance.

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  • A heavy bullet (one with a higher SD) would drop less than a light bullet (of low SD) over a given range if both bullets were fired at the same muzzle velocity. In other words, a heavy bullet retains more velocity (and energy) than a light one and drops less on it’s way to the target.
  • Long, streamlined bullets have high BCs and shed velocity slowly. Short stubby bullets with low BCs lose velocity rapidly.
  • Long, heavy bullets with a high BC require a relatively fast twist to spin the bullets’ greater mass at the proper speed for stabilization. If the twist is much too slow, the bullet may require as mush as 100 yards to stabilize.
  • Penetration is dependent on the force of the bullet being able to overcome resistance. Its momentum must therefore be sufficiently high to displace the mass of opposing material. Penetration is best achieved by improvements to sectional density rather than velocity. By increasing sectional density, using a heavier bullet in the range available for any one calibre, the momentum of the bullet is increased. In other words, a bullet with greater SD will better penetrate into an animal.
  • The higher a bullet’s BC the flatter it will shoot.
  • Round-nosed bullets (a lower BC) are less deflected by brush than bullets with a high BC.

Now, just when we Joe ordinary guys were beginning to get a hold on things, some experts throw us a curve ball, saying that sectional density theory is only applicable to a restricted range of bullet weights. Ah, well, we will leave it to the guys with the white lab coats to sort out.

In the mean time, happy hunting and God bless.

Please contact us at:

info@huntinglegends.com

Hunters and Firearms South Africa – Hunting Safari Help

August 27, 2013 in Conservation, Firearms, hunter, Hunting Ethics, Hunting Help, Hunting trophies by Hunting Legends

SAA CARRIAGE OF FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION
Domestic (within and from the Republic of South Africa)

Departure (Inclusive of International departures)
Firearms may NOT be packed inside checked luggage and must therefore be packed in an appropriate lockable firearm container or case, separate from checked luggage.

Ammunition must be separated from weapons and may be packed within checked luggage, but must be properly secured in an ammunition case or solid box. No ammunition may be packed loosely in checked baggage or within the same case as firearms.

We strongly recommend that ammunition be packed in lockable cases, which can be handed in as loose items at the firearm counters to avoid possible delays during checked baggage screening.
All firearms and ammunition must be declared to the airline check-in agent at the time of check-in. Undeclared firearms and ammunition within checked luggage will result in such baggage being rejected during mandatory checked baggage screening, and will result in the passenger being required to open such baggage for further inspection and safe handling, or the confiscation of such items for further processing and forwarding on a subsequent flight.

Check-in agents will issue the relevant baggage tags and will then direct firearm owners to the appropriate firearm desk for inspection and processing of firearms and ammunition for secure handling to the aircraft.

During the acceptance process at the appropriate firearm desk, the following will be conducted:

  • The owner of the firearm will be required to produce a valid license or temporary import permit for the firearm(s) and ammunition.
  • The owner of the firearm(s) will be required to make and declare the firearm(s) safe and unloaded for carriage.
  • Security staff will request the firearm owner to open his/her checked luggage to verify that ammunition is securely packed and that the total weight of ammunition per license holder does not exceed 5kg’s in weight.
  • The owner of the firearm will be required to complete a firearm register for handover to security staff, who will ensure the secure loading of such items.
  • The staff at the firearm desk will send a pre-advise notification message to the receiving station, advising them of details and loading positions of firearms.
  • Checked baggage containing ammunition will be affixed with a special tag, indicating that such bag was already subjected to inspection, to avoid screening authorities from delaying or confiscating such bag for further security controls.

Handguns (Pistols, revolvers, etc)A R100 handling fee is raised for the carriage of handguns. Payment will only be accepted in the form of credit cards or cash at the firearm desk or allocated firearms acceptance area. These firearms will be processed at the firearm desk for safe carriage in the hold of the aircraft. There will be no charge for handguns carried with hunting equipment if packed in the same case as hunting rifles.

Rifles (in gun case / rifle bags)
Rifles must be processed via the firearm desk for safe carriage and may form part of your free baggage allowance. Thereafter the excess baggage allowance will be raised as applicable

Ammunition A maximum of 5kg securely boxed ammunition per passenger will be permitted for carriage either as a separate piece of baggage or within checked baggage in the hold of the aircraft. Screening authorities may however delay baggage containing ammunition, if such ammunition was not declared at check-in and is therefore not marked with an appropriate tag indicating that such ammunition was already security inspected.

ArrivalUpon arrival, passengers are required to proceed to the allocated firearm desk to collect firearms. Checked baggage containing ammunition may be collected at the normal airport baggage carousel. Ammunition handed in separately may be collected at the firearm desk.

International (All SAA flights departing from outside the Republic of South Africa, arriving in South Africa)

Standard legislation pertaining to the carriage of weapons and ammunition for each destination will apply. It is therefore the traveller’s responsibility to verify and ensure compliance with local laws on the possession and carriage of weapons.

DeparturesPassengers should not pack any firearms within checked baggage. Firearms must be packed in suitable lockable firearm cases or bags.

Where possible, declare firearms and request the airline to place a firearm identification tag on such items, as this will assist in the correct loading and delivery handling on SAA flights arriving in South Africa.

Where passengers originate their journey on South African Airways, we request that you declare the firearms and any checked baggage containing ammunition to check-in staff for appropriate handling and labelling.

Ammunition may be carried within checked luggage, provided that it is securely packed in a lockable or secure container, and that the total weight does not exceed 5kg’s of ammunition per passenger carrying a firearm. (In general, most airlines allow the carriage of ammunition in terms of the dictums of ICAO Dangerous Goods Standards and associated airline processes followed in terms of IATA requirements/guidance).

DO NOT pack ammunition loosely in checked baggage.

Arrivals Upon arrival in South Africa, all declared or identified firearms may be collected directly from the firearm office just after immigration. Any firearms either not declared upon departure, or not identified by an appropriate label will be delivered to the normal baggage carousal for collection.
After collection of checked baggage containing ammunition, you are required to proceed to the SA Police Firearm Office, where all necessary import permits and other documentation will be finalised.

Hunting directory South Africa – South Africa Hunting Safari

August 27, 2013 in African Safaris, hunter, Hunting Ethics, Hunting trophies, Nambia, South Africa by Hunting Legends

Hunting Legends

South Africa, the Hunting Destination in Africa.

South Africa has developed into the most popular hunting destination in Africa. The critical success factors being:

  • The highly successful management by the conservation authorities in South Africa of National and Provincial Parks. With approximately 7 million hectares set aside and managed by the authorities, an enormous resource base of wild animals has been produced for distribution throughout the country.
  • The above, together with the philosophy of sustainable use of our natural resources, has seen the development of some 9000 privately owned game farms covering 17 million hectares of land.
  • The greatest variety of animals available for hunting in any one country in Africa.
  • The high degree of professionalism set by the Professional Hunters’ Association of South Africa (PHASA) and sound regulations controlling the professional hunting industry.

Hunting as a form of tourism contributes enormously to the economy of South Africa. Some 70,000 jobs have been created on game farms and directly from professional hunting. In the 2005 hunting season, 8000 clients, inclusive of non-hunters in each hunting group, hunted in South Africa, having a total of 58,341 hunting days. A total of 39,561 animals were hunted. This amounts to a total revenue from daily rates, animals hunted and taxidermy work of US$ 100 million (R650 million). (Convertion @ 6.53)

African Hunting Safaris – Trophy Records African Safari Hunting

August 27, 2013 in African Safaris, hunter, Hunting Ethics, Hunting trophies, South Africa by Hunting Legends

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Thank your for visiting our site, we trust that you will find the information useful and we look forward to being of service to you. Please click on the links below for more interesting information:

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CLICK HERE FOR:
SOME GREAT HUNTING PHOTOS

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CLICK HERE FOR: THE BEST LODGES IN AFRICA

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CLICK HERE FOR:  VALLEY of the KINGS

Huge Record Breaking Trophies can still be hunted in Africa.

Elephant

Finding good quality trophy’s in Africa is becoming more and more difficult. This is largely due to the huge amounts of outfitters and operators who have entered this market. Quite a few of these are luring naive and non-informed hunters from the east (China), whom are lured into paying ridiculous prices for example – rhino’s. In principle we most probably can’t object to the practice, since top quality trophies are not produced or bred overnight.

The fact of the matter is that many of these operators also subsequently cast a black shadow of doubt over our industry. They do this by offering these hunters access to a range of other species such as lions for example. Many of these lions are however bred in captivity, and kept in captivity till the day before the hunt. They are then released and hunted by a very satisfied hunter who is 99% of the time unaware of the preceding activities prior to the hunt.

THIS IS CANNED HUNTING AT IT’S BEST! PLEASE READ OUR POST ON ETHICAL HUNTING!

A sore subject in hunting circles, and detested by most if not all! In essence we do not have a objection to breeders who breed such animals to be released free to roam and on large properties, providing that such breeders adhere to the ‘strict guidelines’ of Nature Conservation’s policies and procedures. It is however a fact that there are many loopholes in the current guidelines and even more difficult to police by the authorities. The simple, and possibly easiest way of distinguishing the ethical breeders from the rest, is by looking at the size of their properties or private nature reserves. The moment you find top quality trophies on very small and restricted properties, chances are good that this will most likely be a ‘canned hunt’ of sorts.

Hunting Legends in Africa and Real Africa Safaris prides itself on the fact that it has taken us many years to secure our current hunting facilities and areas. Our areas and concessions are huge with the smallest being in excess of 30000 acres, and our big concessions in excess of 1000000 acres. Our big 5 hunts are generally conducted in either Botswana, Caprivi Delta, Zimbabwe, Mozambique or the Kalahari. We do however have excellent buffalo hunts in South Africa, and leopard hunts in Namibia (which is well known for large amounts of leopard)

MASSIVE RHINO’S

We still have a few huge trophies available. 2 x Rhino’s: One Rhino cow at 30′ (that’s 30 inches) and a HUGE BULL of 27.5′ (27,5 inches). That’s record book stuff! Check out the SCI scores on Rhino’s and you will see that a 27,5′ (27,5 inch) Rhino BULL, will get you right there in the BOOK!

These are guaranteed sizes, as the Rhino’s have been darted and measured!

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Contact us immediately should you want to secure this magnificent trophy for yourself!

MONSTER LIONS AVAILABLE FOR THE TROPHY SEEKERS

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THESE LIONS ARE MAGNIFICENT AND WILL RANK AS A HIGH-LIGHT IN ANY TROPHY HUNTERS RECORDS.

MAGNIFICENT CAPE BUFFALO

How about a magnificent “Cape Buffalo” trophy? The following “Buffalo is an old “bull” measuring 46′ (that’s 46 inches!)

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You won’t get much better than this, and this is a huge beast with beautiful symmetric curls!

LARGE TUSKER ELEPHANTS

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Perhaps a ‘Big Elephant’ is what you are looking for. We have a number of great elephants, ranging from 60 to 80 pounds.

NO MATTER WHAT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR – IF IT IS IN AFRICA, WE WILL FIND IT!

Contact HUNTING LEGENDS today for a tailor made package. Prices available on request.

 

Hunting Reports on Ethics and the Hunter

August 27, 2013 in hunter, Hunting Ethics, South Africa by Hunting Legends

 WARNING

This is a website for ‘Professional Hunters’, and not ‘Opportunitist Killers’

If you are an ethical Hunter, you have come to the right place!

We are first conservationists, and then hunters!

We are professional hunters, and not opportunist killers. If you are looking for a fair-chase hunt you have come to the right place. (If you are only in it for the kill and a quick trophy on your wall, we are not the people you are looking for)

If you can spare a moment or two and are interested in ethical hunting, what this means, why we are so against ‘canned hunting’ and fly by night operators, please take the time and read the following comprehensive hunting report.

CLICK HERE: Ethical Hunting Report

We thank God everyday of our lives for the splendour and the beauty of our precious dark continent, called Africa! We are proud to be hunters, were taught to protect, to cherish, to love and to savour the beauty of God’s creation. We sow more than we harvest, invest more than we take, and develop more than there ever used to be. We use hunting as our ‘paypal’, for conserving, protecting and developing our natural resources.

“Real Hunters know this, if we don’t plow back, develop, protect and invest in, we will not have a better tomorrow”.

It will be lost to our grandchildren, the generations to follow, and all this, because of man’s greed…

Old hunting (400 x 266)

We are committed to cleaning up our industry, unveiling the scoundrels, and ridding this industry of the thieves who dare call themselves – ‘professional hunters’!

Welcome to HUNTING LEGENDS IN AFRICA!